coronary artery disease

Who discovered coronary artery disease?

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a condition characterized by the narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle. The understanding and discovery of coronary artery disease have evolved over time through contributions from various researchers and clinicians.

One significant figure in the study of coronary artery disease was Dr. Nikolai Anichkov, a Russian physiologist who conducted pioneering research on atherosclerosis in the early 20th century. Anichkov’s experiments with rabbits demonstrated the role of cholesterol in the development of atherosclerosis, which is a key underlying process in coronary artery disease.

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coronary artery disease

What is Atherosclerosis?

Atherosclerosis is the thickining or hardening of the arteries. It is caused by a buildup of a plaque in the inner lining of the artery. Plaque is made up aof deposits of fatty substances, waste products, calcium and cholestrol and fibrin. It builds up in the arteries, artery wall becomes thickened and stiff.

Causes of Atherosclerosis?

Atherosclerosis is a slowly worsening disease that may begin as early as childhood. The exact cause is unknown. It may start with damage or injury to the inner layer of an artery. The damage may be caused by:

  • Insulin resistance
  • Diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • High cholestrol
  • Obesity
  • Inflammation from an unknown cause or from diseases such as arthritis
  • Smoking

Symptoms of Atherosclerosis?

Atherosclerosis is a condition characterized by the buildup of plaque inside arteries, which can restrict blood flow. The symptoms of atherosclerosis can vary depending on the arteries affected and the degree of blockage. Common symptoms include:

Angina: Chest pain or discomfort, often described as pressure, squeezing, or tightness, typically felt in the chest, arms, shoulders, neck, jaw, or back. Angina occurs when the heart muscle doesn’t receive enough oxygen-rich blood due to narrowed coronary arteries.

Shortness of breath: Difficulty breathing or feeling out of breath, especially during physical activity or exertion. This can result from reduced blood flow to the lungs or heart muscle.

Heart attack (Myocardial Infarction): Sudden and severe chest pain or discomfort, often radiating to the arms, shoulders, neck, jaw, or back. Other symptoms may include shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, sweating, lightheadedness, or fainting.

Renal artery disease: Decreased blood flow to the kidneys, which can lead to high blood pressure, worsening kidney function, fluid retention, or kidney failure.

Carotid artery disease: Reduced blood flow to the brain due to blockage in the carotid arteries, increasing the risk of transient ischemic attacks (TIAs or “mini-strokes”) or strokes.


The same healthy lifestyle changes recommended to treat atherosclerosis also help prevent it. These lifestyle changes can help keep the arteries healthy:

  • Quitting smoking
  • Eating healthy foods
  • Exercising regularly
  • Maintaining a healthy weight
  • Checking and maintaining a healthy blood pressure
  • Checking and maintaining healthy cholesterol and blood sugar levels

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

Coronary artery disease is caused by plaque buildup in the wall of the arteries that supply blood to the heart. It is also called CAD. It is most common heart disease in USA.

Carotid artery disease

Carotid artery disease results from a blockage or narrowing of the carotid arteries. This narrowing is also called carotid artery stenosis. The carotid arteries are major blood vessels that provide your brains blood supply. We have two carotid arteries one on either side of your neck.